Highlights of This Paper
The Written Bible Languages
|Hebrew||All except the Aramaic passages noted next.|
|Aramaic||Gen 31:47||The place names Jegar-sahadutha and Galeed|
|Koine (Common) Greek||All except the Aramaic passages noted next.|
|Aramaic||Mark 5:41||"Talitha Cum" means "Little Girl, I say to you, get up."|
|Matthew 27:46||"Eli, Eli, Lama Bachthani?" means, "My God, my God, why have you forsaken me?"|
|Mark 14:36||"Abba" means "Father"|
|Romans 8:15||"Abba" means "Father"|
|Galatians 4:6||"Abba" means "Father"|
|1 Corinthians 16:22||"Maranatha" means "Come, O Lord"|
Canon - Rule or standard of measurement
Inspired - God breathed
The phrase "This is what the Lord says" is used in O.T. over 2,000 times, attesting to the source of what follows.
O.T. canon closed in 400 BC and formalized in a list produced by Melito of Sardis in 170 AD
Old Testament written between 1400 BC and 400 BC
Apocrypha - Hidden - non-canonical. Written between 200 BC and 200 AD
Apocryphal Books are Rejected Because:
1. They're not in the Jewish canon.
2. Jesus and the apostles never quoted them.
3. They contain historical, chronological and geographical errors.
4. They contradict doctrine in the OT and NT canon.
New Testament written between 50-70 AD
1. Only writings by Apostles or their associates or a relative of Jesus (ie., James and Jude His half-brothers)
2. They contain divinely inspired truth we can use as doctrine.
3. They were regarded by successive generations of Christians as meeting all these points.
Official Canon published by Athanasius of Alexandria in 367 AD
Council of Carthage in 397 AD voted to confirm the same canon.
1. Trivial and of no consequence - spelling, addition or omission of the 'and' or 'for.'
2. Substantial but not of consequence - words or even multiple verses affected.
3. Substantial and having a bearing on the text- ie. Mark 16:9-20
None of the variations in readings have any affect on our doctrine.
Old Testament Documents That We Have Today
Most are Masoretic texts from the 9th Century on.
Qumran discovery provided a copy of Isaiah from 100 BC as well as other ancient books of the OT
New Testament Documents That We Have Today
84 Papyrus fragments
267 Uncials (all capital letters) nearly complete New Testaments
2,764 Cursive documents containing many nearly complete New Testaments
2,143 Lectionaries containing quotes from 90% of the New Testament
18,000 + copies in Latin and other languages
Early church fathers writings which quote New Testament passages more than 80,000 times.
Selected Bible Versions
|Latin Vulgate||Jerome||Various Greek and Hebrew texts||382 AD|
|Wycliffe Bible||John Wycliffe||Latin Vulgate||1382 AD|
|Tyndale New Testament||William Tyndale||Erasmus' Greek text||1525 AD|
|Coverdale Bible||Tyndale and Miles Coverdale||Greek and Hebrew texts||1535 AD|
|Matthew's Bible||John Rogers||Greek and Hebrew texts||1537 AD|
|Great Bible||Miles Coverdale||Matthew's Bible and Greek/Hebrew Texts||1539 AD|
|Geneva Bible||Committee||Greek and Hebrew texts||1560 AD|
|Bishop's Bible||English Clergy||Geneva Bible||1568 AD|
|King James Version||Committee||Bishop's Bible, 5-6 Greek/Hebrew Texts||1611|
|American Standard Version||Committee||Alexandrian Greek plus Hebrew texts||1901|
|Revised Standard Version||Committee||Nestle-Aland Greek plus Hebrew Texts||1952|
|NASB-New American Standard Bible||Lockman Foundation||Nestle-Aland Greek plus Hebrew Texts||1971|
|NIV-New International Version||Committee||Nestle-Aland Greek plus Hebrew Texts||1978|
|NASB 95-New American Standard Update||Lockman Foundation||Nestle-Aland Greek plus Hebrew Texts||1995|